• Incoterms

    The Incoterms rules or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). They are widely used in International commercial transactions or procurement processes.
     
    FAS (Free Alongside Ship)
    The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer's vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export, which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term should be used only for non-containerised seafreight and inland waterway transport.
     
    FOB (Free on Board)
    Under FOB terms the seller bears all costs and risks up to the point the goods are loaded on board the vessel. The seller must also arrange for export clearance. The buyer pays cost of marine freight transportation, bill of lading fees, insurance, unloading and transportation cost from the arrival port to destination. Since Incoterms 1980 introduced the FCA incoterm, FOB should only be used for non-containerised seafreight and inland waterway transport. However, FOB is still used for all modes of transport despite the contractual risks that this can introduce.
     
    CFR (Cost and Freight)
    - El vendedor paga los gastos de transporte y otros necesarios para que la mercancía llegue al puerto convenido, si bien el riesgo de pérdida o daño de la mercancía se transmiete de vendedor a comprador una vez haya sido entregada esta a bordo del buque en el puerto de embarque y haya traspasado la borda del mismo. También exige que el vendedor despache la mercancía de exportación. El seguro es a cargo del comprador.
     
    CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)
    The seller pays for the carriage of the goods up to the named port of destination. Risk transfers to buyer when the goods have been loaded on board the ship in the country of Export. The Shipper is responsible for origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage to named port. The shipper is not responsible for delivery to the final destination from the port (generally the buyer's facilities), or for buying insurance. If the buyer does require the seller to obtain insurance, the Incoterm CIF should be considered. CFR should only be used for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport; for all other modes of transport it should be replaced with CPT.
     
    DES (Delivered ex Ship)
    Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods made available for unloading to the buyer. The seller pays the same freight and insurance costs as he would under a CIF arrangement. Unlike CFR and CIF terms, the seller has agreed to bear not just cost, but also Risk and Title up to the arrival of the vessel at the named port. Costs for unloading the goods and any duties, taxes, etc. are for the Buyer. A commonly used term in shipping bulk commodities, such as coal, grain, dry chemicals; and where the seller either owns or has chartered, their own vessel.
     
    DEQ (Delivered ex Quay)
    This is similar to DES, but the passing of risk does not occur until the goods have been unloaded at the port of discharge
     
    DAF (Delivered at Frontier)
    This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road. The seller pays for transportation to the named place of delivery at the frontier. The buyer arranges for customs clearance and pays for transportation from the frontier to his factory. The passing of risk occurs at the frontier.
     
    EXW (Ex Works)
    The seller makes the goods available at their premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included. EXW means that a buyer incurs the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. Either the seller does not load the goods on collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export, or if the seller does load the goods, he does so at buyer's risk and cost. If the parties agree that the seller should be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.
     
    FCA (Free Carrier)
    The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, at a named place. This can be to a carrier nominated by the buyer, or to another party nominated by the buyer.
     
    CPT (Carriage Paid to)
    CPT replaces the venerable C&F (cost and freight) and CFR terms for all shipping modes outside of non-containerised seafreight.
     
    CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to)
    This term is broadly similar to the above CPT term, with the exception that the seller is required to obtain insurance for the goods while in transit. CIP requires the seller to insure the goods for 110% of their value under at least the minimum cover of the Institute Cargo Clauses of the Institute of London Underwriters (which would be Institute Cargo Clauses (C)), or any similar set of clauses. The policy should be in the same currency as the contract.
     
    DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid)
    This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer to the named place of destination in the contract of sale. A transaction in international trade where the seller is responsible for making a safe delivery of goods to a named destination, paying all transportation expenses but not the duty. The seller bears the risks and costs associated with supplying the goods to the delivery location, where the buyer becomes responsible for paying the duty and other customs clearing expenses.
     
    DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)
    Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. The seller is not responsible for unloading. This term is often used in place of the non-Incoterm "Free In Store (FIS)". This term places the maximum obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer. All the risks and responsibilities are not transferred to the buyer upon delivery of the goods at the named place of destination.

  • Conversion Factors

     

    To turn mesurements into metric system multply by the provided factor. To turn mesurements of the metric system to english units divide by the provided factor.
    English Mesurements
    Factor
    Metric System
    Length
    Inch
    2.54
    Centímetros
    Feet
    30.48
    Centímetros
    Yard
    0.9144
    Metros
    Ground Mile
    1.609
    Kilómetros
    Nautical Mile
    1.852
    Kilómetros
    Nautical Breastroke
    1.829
    Metros
       Area - Surface  
     
    Square Inch
    6.4516
    Centímetro cuadrado
    Square Feet
    0.0929
    Metro cuadrado
    Square Yard
    0.836
    Metro cuadrado
    Acres
    0.4047
    Hectareas
    Square Mile
    2.589
    Kilómetro cuadrado
    Volume and Capacity
    Cubic Inch
    16.387
    Centímetro cúbico
    Cubic Feet
    0.028
    Metro cúbico
    English Gallon
    4.546
    Litro
    US Gallon
    3.785
    Litro
    Cubic Feet
    28.317
    Litro
    Weight
    Ounces avoird
    28.349
    Gramos
    Ounces troy
    31.103
    Gramos
    Pounds
    0.454
    Kilogramos
    Short ton
    0.9072
    Tonelada
    Long ton
    1.016
    Tonelada

     

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